WILLS, TRUSTS & EXECUTRIES
Writing a will is an easy and inexpensive way of protecting your wishes and your loved ones.
If you don’t have a will in place certain legal rules will apply automatically which may not suit you and those you leave behind.
We are happy to assist you achieving your wishes.
Why it is important to make a will
It is important for you to make a will whether or not you think you have many possessions or much money.
It is important because:-
- if you die without a will, (this is known as dying intestate) there are certain rules which dictate how the money, property or possessions will be allocated. This may not be the way that you would have wished your money and possessions to be distributed
- couples who are not married or who have not registered a civil partnership do not automatically inherit from each other unless there is a will. The death of one partner may create serious financial problems for the remaining partner although the surviving partner can go to court to try and get some of the deceased partner’s estate
- if you have children, you should make a will to protect the children in case either one or both parents or other carers die. You can name a guardian in the will and leave instructions for how they should provide care for the children
- it may be possible to reduce the amount of tax payable on the inheritance if advice is taken in advance and a will is made
- if your circumstances have changed, it is important that you make a will to ensure that your money and possessions are distributed according to your wishes. For example, if you have separated and your ex-partner now lives with someone else, you may want to change your will. If, after you have made a will, you get married or enter into a registered civil partnership, you will need to change it to include your new partner and exclude your ex-partner. If you don’t change it, your ex-partner can still inherit if he or she is named in the old will. If you are in any doubt as to whether or not you should make a will, you can contact us to discuss or click on the enquiry buttom
Is it necessary to use a solicitor
It is generally advisable to use a solicitor or to have a solicitor check a will you have drawn up, to make sure it will have the effect you want. This is because it is easy to make mistakes and, if there are errors in the will, this can cause complex problems after your death. Sorting out misunderstandings and disputes may result in considerable legal costs, which will reduce the amount of money in the estate.
Some common mistakes in making a will are:-
- not being aware of the formal requirements needed to make a will legally valid
- failing to take account of all the money and property available resulting in some property having to be dealt with under the rules of intestacy
- failing to take account of the possibility that a beneficiary may die either before the person making the will or before the estate is settled. A will can be drafted to take account of what happens to the beneficiary’s share if this happens
- changing the will. If these alterations are not signed and witnessed, they are invalid
- being unaware that marriage, civil partnership, divorce or dissolution of a civil partnership do not invalidate a previously made will
- being unaware of the rules which exist to enable dependants to claim from the estate if they believe they are not adequately provided for. These are called legal rights. These rules mean that the provisions in the will could be overturned if dependents exert these rights.
When it is advisable to use a Solicitor
There are some circumstances when it is particularly advisable to use a solicitor. These are where:-
- you share a property with someone who is not your husband, wife or civil partner
- you wish to make provision for a dependant who is unable to care for themselves
- there are several family members who may make a claim on the will, for example, a second wife or children from a first marriage
- your permanent home is not in the United Kingdom
- you are not a British citizen
- you are resident here but you own or part-own overseas property
- you are involved in a business
- you want your possessions to be distributed according to another legal system.
What should be included in a will
To save time and reduce costs when going to a solicitor, you should give some thought to the major points which you want included in your will. You should consider such things as:-
- how much money and what property and possessions you have, for example, property, savings, occupational and personal pensions, insurance policies, bank and building society accounts, shares
- who you want to benefit from your will. You should make a list of all the people to whom you wish to leave money or possessions. These people are known as beneficiaries. You also need to consider whether you wish to leave any money to charity
- who should look after any children under 16 and what provisions need to be made for them and any older children
- who is going to sort out the estate and carry out your wishes as set out in the will. These people are known as the executors
Who are executors
Executors are the people who will be responsible for carrying out your wishes and for sorting out the estate. They will have to engather all the assets of the estate, deal with all the paperwork and pay all the debts, taxes, funeral and administration costs out of money in the estate. They will need to pay out the gifts and transfer any property to beneficiaries.
Who to choose as executors
It is not necessary to appoint more than one executor although it is advisable to do so, for example, in case one of them dies. It is common to appoint two, but up to four executors can take on responsibility for administering the will after a death. The people most commonly appointed as executors are:-
- relatives or friends
- solicitors or accountants
It is important to choose executors with considerable care since their job involves a great deal of work and responsibility. You should always approach anyone you are thinking of appointing as an executor to see if they will agree to take on the responsibility. If someone is appointed who is not willing to be an executor, they have a right to refuse.
If you do not appoint an executor the court has to do this after your death.
If an executor dies, any other surviving executor(s) can deal with the estate. If there are no surviving executors, the court can appoint one.
Requirements for a valid will
In order for a will to be valid, it must be:-
- made by a person who is 12 years old or over; and
- made voluntarily and without pressure from any other person; and
- made by a person who is of sound mind. This means the person must be fully aware of the nature of the document being written or signed and aware of the property and the identity of the people who may inherit; and
- in writing; and
- signed by the person making the will on every page; and
- signed by the person in front of a witness.
As soon as the will is signed and witnessed, it is valid.
Where to keep a will
Once a will has been made, it should be kept in a safe place and other documents should not be attached to it as this can make it more difficult to find. There are a number of places where you can keep a will:-
- with a solicitor. Make sure that someone knows which solicitor’s office holds the original will
- at a bank although it may charge an annual fee
- at home. If you keep a copy at home it is a good idea to put it in an envelope that is clearly labelled. It is generally not a good idea to keep an original will at home as it can get damaged.
Changes of circumstance
When a will has been made, it is important to keep it up to date to take account of changes in circumstances. It is advisable for you to reconsider the contents of a will regularly to make sure that it still reflects your wishes and what you own. The most common changes of circumstances which affect who you want to leave your property to are:-
- getting married, remarried or registering a civil partnership
- getting divorced, dissolving a civil partnership or separating
- the birth or adoption of children, if you wish to add these as beneficiaries in a will
- death of a beneficiary
- new assets.
If you do not change your will after a marriage, registration or dissolution of a civil partnership or divorce the existing will is still valid.
How to change a will
You may want to change your will because there has been a change of circumstances. You must not do this by amending the original will yourself after it has been signed and witnessed. Any obvious alterations to the will are assumed to have been made at a later date, do not form part of the original legally valid will and can give rise to expensive legal proceedings to establish which is the valid will.
The only way you can change a will is by making:-
- a codicil to the will; or
- a new will.
A codicil is a supplement to a will which makes some alterations but leaves the rest of it intact. This might be done, for example, to increase a legacy, change an executor or guardian named in a will, or to add beneficiaries.
A codicil must be signed by the person who made the will and be witnessed in the same way. However, the witnesses do not have to be the same as for the original will.
There is no limit to how many codicils can be added to a will, but they are only suitable for very straightforward changes. If a complicated change is involved, for example, because a main beneficiary has died, it is usually advisable to make a new will.
Making a new will
If you wish to make major changes to a will, it is advisable to make a new one. The new will should begin with a clause stating that it revokes all previous wills and codicils. The old will should be destroyed. Revoking a will means that the will is no longer legally valid.
Destroying a will
If you want to destroy a will, you must burn it, tear it up or otherwise destroy it with the clear intention that it is revoked. There is a risk that if a copy subsequently reappears it might be thought that the destruction was accidental. You must destroy the will yourself or it must be destroyed in your presence.
If a will is destroyed accidentally, it is not revoked and can still be declared valid if there is a copy available. Its validity would have to be proven in court.
Although a will can be revoked by destruction, it is always advisable that a new will should contain a clause revoking all previous wills and codicils. Revoking a will means that the will is no longer legally valid.
Challenging a will
A person may want to challenge a will because:-
- they believe that the will is invalid; or
- they believe that they have not been adequately provided for in the will. Only a spouse, civil partner, children or their descendants can challenge the distribution of assets in a will and claim their legal rights instead. A beneficiary who is not a relative with legal rights cannot challenge the will.
There are time limits for challenging a will and if you want to challenge a will, you should seek legal advice as soon as possible.
Changing distribution of property under a will
It is possible for beneficiaries of a will to change the division of the deceased’s estate as it is laid out in the will. This is done by a formal process called either a Deed of Family Arrangement or a Deed of Variation.
All the beneficiaries must agree to this. You must seek legal advice about doing this.
We are happy to assist with all enquiries in relation to your will or inheritance planning. Please contact us by telephone on 0141 337 6678 or 07988 905 198 or by complete our enquiry form and we will contact you to discuss.